Much effort has been spent reducing packaging waste, both by reducing packaging at the design stage and also by increasing the amount of used packaging that is recovered and
recycled. This will continue but it needs to be done in the context of the role that packaging plays in protecting food and other goods and preventing them going to waste.

This publication provides the background data from an extensive piece of research carried out by Dr Jan Kooijman, a leading Dutch expert on food supply systems in 19953. It was commissioned by INCPEN to understand the material and energy requirements along the food supply chain; in particular, how those needs vary across the supply chain.